E2e’s mission is to solve one of the most perplexing energy puzzles of our time—the efficiency gap.


Fossil fuels are crucial, though dirty, drivers of our economy. They produce 82% of all energy consumed in the U.S., but they pollute our air and water, contribute to global climate change, and increase our dependence on foreign energy sources. Yet relying on renewable energy sources instead could be costly and disruptive for the U.S. economy. Thus a critical question arises: how do we reduce fossil fuel use in the most cost-effective way?

We can cut fossil fuel use by reducing the amount of energy necessary to do things – by improving energy efficiency. Estimates of the expected savings from energy efficiency rely on detailed ex ante calculations, which typically predict massive savings. Yet reality has been far different, with the energy saving activities we observe far lower than expected. This disparity between the levels of investment in energy efficiency that appears to be cost effective based on ex-ante predictions and the levels actually observed is known as the energy efficiency "gap."

This gap matters. Encouraging investments in cost-effective energy efficiency improvements is a politically acceptable way to mitigate global climate change and reduce dependence on foreign fuel. Despite the amount of money spent on energy efficiency programs, the true size of the efficiency gap is the subject of intense debate (See, e.g., Allcott and Greenstone, 2012). Are consumers and businesses bypassing profitable opportunities to reduce their energy consumption? Are current energy efficiency programs in the U.S. providing the biggest bang per energy efficiency buck?

In summary, we depend on energy efficiency to:

Mitigate climate change
Cut our energy consumption
Reduce pollution Save consumers’ money

E2e is a joint initiative of University of California – Berkeley, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Chicago: three recognized leaders in energy research. We are a group of economists, engineers, and behavioral scientists focused on understanding the energy efficiency gap.

We rely on randomized experiments and other state-of-the-art evaluation strategies to measure and enhance the impact of energy efficiency initiatives. We seek to understand the difference between what is technically possible and what is practically achievable for energy efficiency in a wide variety of settings. Uniting the goal of creation of knowledge with a commitment to non-partisan outreach, E2e aims to create a cheaper and greener future.


How does E2e solve this puzzle?




Outreach and Training

We conduct and catalyze energy efficiency research to expand the frontiers of knowledge.

We build a community of world-class researchers and professionals focused on solving the energy efficiency gap.

We educate policy and business leaders on evidence-based energy efficiency evaluations.

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